following are conclusions and talking points so far developed based
on the results of this years project.
The habitation site is a settlement
We can strongly conclude that the Dizon-1 site is a settlement. This
is based on the following:
A better understanding of time depth
- The numerous posthole features may be reconstructed into house
plans. Several large postholes may even be granaries (two granaries)
– this may be more securely stated after the results of
the analysis of the archaeobotanical samples is completed.
- The amount of middens and hearths recorded from the area were
the first two excavations test pitted, and the area of this year’s
- The general cultural debris scattered throughout the area.
- The density of the features – 4 structures in a 24 x 22
meters land area.
From the careful analysis of tradeware artefacts recovered from burials
in the cultural layers of Context 5 and 14, and random selections
of samples from non-burial deposits in Context 1,2,14, and 5, a time
depth of 13th to 14th century was established for the settlement,
with at least four habitation structures and several hearths, middens
and burials. A 16th century deposit was identified represented by
a reduction of features to one habitation structure, hearth, midden
and burial; replaced mainly by plowed fields.
analysis of the cultural deposit and its correlation with the stratigraphic
deposition allows us to integrate knowledge of the time depth of
the eruptive history of Mt. Pinatubo derived from traditional C14
dating from clusters of charred tree stumps around the shoulders
of Mt. Pinatubo (see Newhall et al. 1997).
We therefore can establish the following sequence of habitation
on the general area of Babo balukbuk:
There was human habitation in the area before 2,300 b.p. represented
by the recovery of pottery in the deep test trench. It is hard to
establish if this habitation was a settlement from our present data.
- The Maraunot eruptive period starts around 2,300 b.p. and covers
the area with deposits probably from a pyroclastic flow, creating
a more than three meters of deposit.
- On top of this deposit, around the 13th century C.E., a settlement
grew. The people built sturdy structures, used earthenware and stoneware
pottery, had metal implements and exchanged materials for tradeware
ceramics. They may have consumed rice and may have produce rice
themselves. The population wore glass beads and metal bangles. They
also buried their dead near their homes, with several tradeware
ceramics included in the burial
- The settlement decreased by the 16th century and the area was
replaced by plowed fields most likely for the planting of rice.
The field ran-through the later surface on top of the burials -
this may suggest a discontinuity of populations, and may suggest
the coming of a different group of people more or less 200 years
later who practiced rice agriculture and also buried dead near their
houses – with tradeware ceramics. Unlike those living there
200 years before, they were not as keen in wearing bangles.
- Pinatubo erupted again around 500 b.p. (Buag eruptive period)
and covered the fields at Babo Balukbuk. The deposits this time
may most likely be airborne pyroclastics - based on the thinness
of the deposit. The airborne deposit was heavy enough to embed whole
pottery and other cultural materials at the surface of the land
at the time of the eruption.
- The land was again utilized for agriculture, by at least the
turn of the 20th century, for the cash crop sugarcane.
- The latest eruption of Pinatubo in 1991 left a thin additional
layer of sandy material, burying plowmarks and earthenware debris.
Bio archaeological implications: Rice inclusions
We have established in this site that the people living in the settlement
were burying some of their dead near or perhaps under their homes.
The Tinguian still did this in the 20th century (see M.Cole).
or exchange network