The following are conclusions and talking points so far developed based on the results of this years project.

The habitation site is a settlement
We can strongly conclude that the Dizon-1 site is a settlement. This is based on the following:

  1. The numerous posthole features may be reconstructed into house plans. Several large postholes may even be granaries (two granaries) – this may be more securely stated after the results of the analysis of the archaeobotanical samples is completed.
  2. The amount of middens and hearths recorded from the area were the first two excavations test pitted, and the area of this year’s excavation.
  3. The general cultural debris scattered throughout the area.
  4. The density of the features – 4 structures in a 24 x 22 meters land area.
A better understanding of time depth
From the careful analysis of tradeware artefacts recovered from burials in the cultural layers of Context 5 and 14, and random selections of samples from non-burial deposits in Context 1,2,14, and 5, a time depth of 13th to 14th century was established for the settlement, with at least four habitation structures and several hearths, middens and burials. A 16th century deposit was identified represented by a reduction of features to one habitation structure, hearth, midden and burial; replaced mainly by plowed fields.

Our analysis of the cultural deposit and its correlation with the stratigraphic deposition allows us to integrate knowledge of the time depth of the eruptive history of Mt. Pinatubo derived from traditional C14 dating from clusters of charred tree stumps around the shoulders of Mt. Pinatubo (see Newhall et al. 1997).

We therefore can establish the following sequence of habitation on the general area of Babo balukbuk:

  1. There was human habitation in the area before 2,300 b.p. represented by the recovery of pottery in the deep test trench. It is hard to establish if this habitation was a settlement from our present data.
  2. The Maraunot eruptive period starts around 2,300 b.p. and covers the area with deposits probably from a pyroclastic flow, creating a more than three meters of deposit.
  3. On top of this deposit, around the 13th century C.E., a settlement grew. The people built sturdy structures, used earthenware and stoneware pottery, had metal implements and exchanged materials for tradeware ceramics. They may have consumed rice and may have produce rice themselves. The population wore glass beads and metal bangles. They also buried their dead near their homes, with several tradeware ceramics included in the burial
  4. The settlement decreased by the 16th century and the area was replaced by plowed fields most likely for the planting of rice. The field ran-through the later surface on top of the burials - this may suggest a discontinuity of populations, and may suggest the coming of a different group of people more or less 200 years later who practiced rice agriculture and also buried dead near their houses – with tradeware ceramics. Unlike those living there 200 years before, they were not as keen in wearing bangles.
  5. Pinatubo erupted again around 500 b.p. (Buag eruptive period) and covered the fields at Babo Balukbuk. The deposits this time may most likely be airborne pyroclastics - based on the thinness of the deposit. The airborne deposit was heavy enough to embed whole pottery and other cultural materials at the surface of the land at the time of the eruption.
  6. The land was again utilized for agriculture, by at least the turn of the 20th century, for the cash crop sugarcane.
  7. The latest eruption of Pinatubo in 1991 left a thin additional layer of sandy material, burying plowmarks and earthenware debris.

Bio archaeological implications: Rice inclusions

Burial practice
We have established in this site that the people living in the settlement were burying some of their dead near or perhaps under their homes. The Tinguian still did this in the 20th century (see M.Cole).

Trade or exchange network